Wagner, Warren L., Derral R. Herbst and S. H. Sohmer. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i (Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication, 2 Vol. Set). Honolulu, HI
Flora of Hawaii:
Distribution Native to China and Japan and probably Burma and Thailand, spread early through cultivation throughout Malesia and the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, a Polynesian introduction on Ni`ihau, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.
Habit Fast growing shrubs or shrubby trees up to ca. 5(-10) m tall; branches hirsute.
Leaves Leaves ovate, usually 5-20 cm long, 8-12 cm wide, upper surface scabrous, lower surface soft pubescent, unlobed or variously 1-5 lobed, often with much variation on a single plant, apex acuminate, base rounded to cordate, petioles 3-6 cm long, stipules ovate to broadly lanceolate.
Flowers Staminate inflorescences spicate, ca. 3-8 cm long, pistillate inflorescences globose, ca. 1-1.2 cm in diameter, clavate bracts ca. 2 mm long exserted from the clusters.