Podostemum scaturiginum (Martius) C. T. Philbrick & A. Novelo, comb. nov. Mniopsis scaturiginum Martius, Nov. gen. sp. pl. 1: 3, t. 1. 1824. Crenias scopulorum Sprengel, Syst. veg. 4: 247. 1827, nom. superfl. Crenias scaturiginum (Martius) C. D. K. Cook & Rutishauser, Taxon 50: 1165. 2001.-TYPE: BRAZIL. Goias: prope Contagem de S. Maria, Oct 1818, Martius s.n. (holotype: M!; pos sible isotypes: L-2 sheets!). Plant Description: Roots 0.5-1.8 (0.7) mm wide. Stems monomorphic, arising 1.1-4 (2.5; N=8) mm apart along root, 0.5-3 (1.7) cm long. Leaves sessile, upright, arising in a 130° distichous arrangement (making stem appear dorsiventral), entire (occasionally near stem apex) or 2-3- (2-) lobed, 1.6-6.5 (2.6) mm long; lobes 0.3-3.6 (1.5) mm long, 0.2-1.6 (0.7) mm wide, spatulate or parallel-margined, often reflexed, flattened, apices rounded, blunt, or acute, with a faint central vein or central vein absent; leaf bases asymmetrical, obliquely attached to stem; stipules composed of a single, asymmetrically placed marginal or submarginal lobe on one side of the leaf base, 0.5-1.3 (0.7) mm long, often leaf-like, blunt to rounded, entire, persistent, becoming hardened on older stems. Flowers 1-16 (4) per stem; spathella 1.7-3.2 (2.4) mm long, 1.2-1.7 (1.4) mm wide, smooth to minutely papil late, apex rounded or with a nipple; tepals 3, linear or awl-shaped, straight or curved, apex acute; lateral tepals 0.8-1.6 (1.2) mm long; andropodial tepal 0.4-1 (0.7) mm long; an dropodium 0.6-1.2 (0.9) mm long prior to anthesis, during anthesis to 0.8-2 (1.3) mm; stamens 2, filaments 0.2--0.9 (0.5) mm long prior to anthesis, during anthesis to 0.3-1 (0.7) mm; anthers 0.7-1.2 (0.8) mm long, 0.3-1.2 (0.7) mm wide; pollen dyads 40-48 (45) µm long, 25-30 (28) µm wide; ovary 1-1.7 (1.3) mm long, 0.8-1.5 (1.1) mm wide; stigmas entire (rare) or with 2-7 (3) lobes, 0.5--0.8 (0.6) mm long prior to anthesis, during anthe sis to 0.4-1 (0.7) mm, lobes 0.1--0.7 (0.3) mm long; pedicels 0.3-1 (0.4) mm long prior to anthesis, during anthesis to 0.6-2.6 (1.8) mm. Capsules 1.1-3 (1.3) mm long, 0.8-1.4 (1.1) mm wide, smooth (lacking ribs); pedicels in fruit 0.6-5.5 (2.3) mm long; seeds 0-172 (80) per capsule, 0.17--0.25 (0.21) mm long, 0.12--0.18 (0.16) mm wide.
Distribution. Brazil (Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro).
REPRESENTATIVE SPECIMENS. Brazil. ESPIRITO SANTO: Vale de Rio Jucu, Viana, Mello-Silva & Pirani 822 (NY, WCSU).-Goias: Rio Corumba, Glaziou 21997 (BR, C, G), 21998 (BR, C, S); Rio Uruhu, pres de Goyaz, 22003 (BR, C-1 sheet and spirit no. 11359, F, RB, S, US); Rio Macaco, Linario, Glaziou 22004 (BR, C, G, K, S, US); Rio das Almas, pres de Meia Ponte, Glaziou 22008 (C, BM, BR, L, S, US), 22009 (BM, BR, C-1 sheet and spirit jar no. 11356, F, G, RB, S, US), 22010 (C, G, S); Rio Corumba, Glaziou 22011 (BR, C-sheet and spirit jar no. 11357, F, G, S, US); Rio Uruhu, pres de Goyaz, Glaziou 22012 (BR, C-1 sheet and spirit jar no. 11358, F, S, US); Ribeirao de Caldas, Glaziou 22013 (BM, BR, C-1 sheet and spirit jar no. 11355, F, G, S, US); Rio Corumba, Glaziou s.n. (C); Rio Uruhu, pres de Goyaz, Glaziou s.n. (L); prope Contagem de S. Maria, Martius s.n. (BM, L-2 sheets, M, P, W); Cachoeira do Pantano, 10-15 km NW of Caiaponia, Philbrick et al. 5602 (ICN, MEXU, WCSU); Rio Padre Souza, between lnterlandia and Anapolis, Philbrick et al. 5622 (ICN, MEXU, WCSU); Rio Caldas, Leopoldo de Bulhoes, Philbrick et al. 5626-5628 (ICN, MEXU, WCSU); Rio Verde, water fall of Rio Verde, Catalao, Philbrick & Novelo 5770 (BHCB, ICN, MEXU, WCSU); Rio Vermelho, Weddell s.n. (P).-MINAS GERAIS: Rio Suagui-Pequeno, Coroaci, Philbrick & Novelo 5736, 5740 (BHCB, ICN, MEXU, WCSU); Rio Santo Antonio, W of Luislandia along BR-040, Philbrick & Novelo 5766, (BHCB, ICN, MEXU, WCSU); Rio Sao Bento, 3 km W of Sao Antonio do Rio Verde, Philbrick & Novelo 5776 (BHCB, ICN, MEXU, WCSU); Rio Galheiro, along BR-452, Perdizes, Philbrick & Novelo 5780 (BHCB, ICN, MEXU, WCSU); Caldas, Regnell s.n. (BR).-RlO DE JANEIRO. Rio Alambari, estrada para Penedo, Bacia do Rio Paraiba, Bove et al. 720 (R).
Leaves of P. scaturiginum are entire or two-lobed. The lobes can be obscured when the leaves are clustered near the apex. Leaves several nodes back from the stem apex lose their lobes and can thus appear entire. As in P. saldanhanum and P. weddellianum, the stigmas of P. scaturiginum are lobed.
The stipules of P. scaturiginum can be large (relative to those of other species) and leaf-like. Royen (1954, p. 225) interpreted the large stipules as smaller leaves rather than stipules: "Leaves in 4 orthostichies, the largest leaves in the outer orthostichies, and two other orthostichies with smaller leaves." Stipule form varies. The outline of the stipule can be entire or with an irregular margin and the apex rounded (often asymmetrically so) to blunt or rarely acute.
Podostemum scaturiginum was described by Martius (1824) based on his collections from Goias, Brazil. The holotype is located in M. Two specimens in L (barcodes L 0442920, L 0442919) may be fragments of the holotype, although the only locality infor mation on the label is "Brasilia."